• sugar22risk posted an update 1 week, 2 days ago

    5%]; no = 4,018 [83.5%]) to preserve the time ordering of the analyses, that is, to verify that the risk exposures occurred before self-harming behavior. Being bullied was assessed using child, mother, and teacher reports. Child reports were collected at 8 and 10 years, using a modified version of the Bullying and Friendship Interview Schedule (detailed in Wolke et al. 20). There were 5 questions pertaining to experience of overt bullying: personal belongings taken; threatened or blackmailed; hit or beaten up; tricked in a nasty way; called bad/nasty names. There were also 4 questions pertaining to relational bullying: exclusion to upset the child; pressure to do things s/he didn’t want to do; lies or nasty things said about others; and games spoiled. Because of the skewed distribution of responses, overt bullying was coded categorically as present if selleck the participant confirmed that at least 1 of the 5 behaviors occurred repeatedly (4 or more times in the past 6 months) or very frequently (at least once per week in the past 6 months). Similarly, relational bullying was coded as present if the child confirmed that at least 1 of the 4 behaviors occurred repeatedly or very frequently. 25 The following victimization variables were derived: whether the children experienced any bullying (overt and/or relational versus neither); chronicity of being bullied, defined as unstable (reported only at age 8 years or age 10 years), stable (reported at both age 8 years and age 10 years), or never been bullied (none). 25 Mother and teacher reports were derived from a single item of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire 26: “child is picked on or bullied by other children.” If the response was “somewhat applies” or “certainly applies” at any time point (mother: 7, 8, and 9 years; teacher: 7 and 10 years), the child was considered a mother or teacher reported victim. 10 In addition, mother (not bullied; unstable = 1 time point; stable = 2 or 3 time points) and teacher (not bullied; unstable = 1 time point; stable = 2 time points) chronicity variables were constructed. 10 The overall agreement rates between informants were as follows: for mothers and children, κ= 0.21, p < .001; for mothers and teachers, κ = 0.18, p < .001; and for teachers and children, κ = 0.10, p < .001, which are largely consistent with previous reports. 22 and 25 A preschool maladaptive parenting variable was constructed using mother reported hitting (daily or weekly at 2 and/or 3.5 years), shouting (daily at 2 and/or 3.5 years) and hostility.27 Hostility (1.8 and/or 4 years) was constructed from 4 items, for example, “mum/mom often feels irritated by child,” “mum/mom has battle of wills with child,” previously identified as loading onto 1 distinct factor.27 Hostility was recorded as present if 3 or more items were reported.