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A important obtaining was that familismo served as both a protective and also a risk factor for heroin use. In terms of protective factors, familismo supplied protection from poorer health and homelessness. This cohort was comparable for the common Mexican-American population concerning 2278-0203.186164 chronic disease except for elevated rates of HCV (hepatitis C virus), but even then much healthier in comparison to other IDU populations (Torres et al., 2011). Participants also had a standard place of residence: none from the 26 participants were homeless in the timeNIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript3Participants have been assigned fictitious names so as to guard their anonymity. Subst Use Misuse. Author manuscript; accessible in PMC 2015 July 01.Flores et al.Pageof interview (plus the rate of existing homeless in the general sample [N = 227] was low [14 ]). Family members was the prime motivator for cessation of heroin use and for maintaining abstinence. However, Familismo also served to assistance continued substance use. Within the following exemplar quote, one particular participant describes how “enabling” (the participant’s term) behaviors of his mother prolonged his heroin use (risk element) but in addition facilitated his potential to stop using heroin because of the appreciate of his mother and household (protective): Participant: Properly, when I would get sick, I didn’t want no one to become around me but my mom was generally there. She’s always generating positive that I was okay. She known as paramedics a number of occasions. Interviewer: She was taking care of you? Participant: Yeah, she’d knock on my door- he knew I could do it [kick the withdrawals]. She knew 2046-3758.57.2000520 I could kick. But I was going via some shit. Often I’d cut [go back to use]. But the last time, she was there for me. She’d knock around the door every 30 minutes, “Jose, you okay?!” Interviewer: Is there any part of how your mother employed to assist you that perhaps kept you making use of?NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author Manuscript NIH-PA Author ManuscriptParticipant: Yeah, inside the beginning she would- t’s called an enabler. And back inside the day, she would give me funds just because she did not know how sick I was. But she knew I required it. But she did not know what it was for. But she had an notion that, “he’s not correct.” Due to the fact when she did discover, it broke her heart. She said, “I knew one thing was wrong with you.” But she used to provide me cash, to not go use, but simply because I was so sick … I don’t know, I assume if she would’ve kicked me out from the residence and just cut me off, I would not have created it. s12889-016-3440-z I’d probably be dead by now. And hearing the items and the prayers getting answered is what helped me. (Jose) Machismo–Machismo was the second most referred to cultural worth. Participants described scenarios in which Machismo encompasses desirable qualities such as masculinity, honor, PF-562271 manufacturer sexual prowess, male dominance, and protection of loved ones. Unfavorable elements of machismo were also described by participants, like the subjugation of women, womanizing, and false bravado.